Eales Disease is an idiopathic obliterative vasculopathy that primarily affects the peripheral retina of adults. Retinal changes include extensive peripheral non-perfusion, perivascular sheathing, and neovascularization. Visual loss is usually caused by bilateral recurrent vitreous hemorrhage. It is prevalent in India and parts of the Middle East.
Eales Disease predominantly affects healthy young adults with peakage of onset of symptoms at 20-30 years. Ocular inflammation is a common manifestation. It appears to be a primary disease of retinal veins. Arteriolar vessels are involved, so it is a retinal vasculitis or vasculopathy.
There are varying degrees of peripheral retinal non-perfusion and neovascularization and occurs in 80% of the patients. Rubeosis can also occur.
Treatment with laser photocoagulation is the treatment of choice. Persistent vitreous hemorrhage may require vitrectomy.
The disease may be associated with immunologic phenomena whose mechanism remains unknown.